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Alpine Support Knowledge Base .: Glossary

Glossary


Terms in glossary: 120.

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Modem
A peripheral device used by a computer for sending communications via the telephone lines to another computer. Modem stands for MOdulator/DEModulator. A modem transforms digital information from your computer (i.e. binary - 1's and 0's) into an analogue signal (i.e. sound) that can be sent across a telephone line - a process known as modulating. The receiving modem demodulates the analogue signal it receives, converting the information contained in the signal back into digital information which is recognised by computers. Modems are used for sending and receiving electronic mail, connecting to bulletin board systems, and surfing the Internet.
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MP3
Otherwise known as ISO-MPEG Audio Layer-3, MP3 is an increasingly popular format for music files on the Internet. MP3 employs a high compression technique, with bits of information being discarded to allow data to be compressed into files which are relatively small in comparison with wave (.wav) files but which retain near audio CD quality.
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MPEG
Moving Picture Experts Group. A standard used on the World Wide Web for video & audio files. Highly efficient compression techniques are used which enable the files to be transmitted across the Internet significantly quicker than other audio & video files.
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Multimedia
Multimedia refers to the delivery of information that combines different content formats including motion video, audio, still images, graphics, animation and text.
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Name Servers
A computer that performs the mapping of domain names to IP addresses.
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Network
A group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks, including LAN's and WAN's.
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News
Generic term for information transported on the Internet using the nntp (Network News Transport Protocol). Often used to distinguish news from mail.
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News Reader
Software for reading and posting articles (posts) and follow ups to a USENET newsgroup.
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Newsgroup
A USENET newsgroup is a discussion forum where participants read and post comments on an agreed topic.
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NIC
A NIC stands for Network Interface Card. A NIC is a card that enables your computer to be connected to a network. The NIC controls the flow of information from and to a PC and across a network.
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Node
Any device connected to a computer network as well as the point at which the devices are connected.
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OC-3
An OC-3 is a high bandwidth circuit which transmits 155,000,000 bits per second. This is the size of the largest Internet backbone providers networks.
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Parking
When you register a domain name, you are required to specify which name servers you will be using. When you "park" a domain name, you are pointing it at someone's name servers. Parking is also a term used for using multiple domain names for the same web site.
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POP
A POP (Point of Presence) is the modem which the Internet user dials from their computer to gain access to the Internet.
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Port
A TCP port is a logical channel identified by a unique port number. In TCP/IP, different applications communicate via different TCP ports: HTTP - port 80, FTP - port 21.
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Post
The term for an original USENET or mailing list article. Used as a verb, to "post" means to submit an article for publication on USENET in one or more newsgroups or to one or more mailing list. If sent to more than one newsgroup or list the post is said to be "cross-posted". If the newsgroup is moderated, the moderator decides if the post will appear; otherwise the post appears automatically.
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Protocol
A formal set of rules and descriptions of information formats that allow two computers to exchange information.
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Proxy Server
A server designed to perform tasks on the Internet on behalf of other computers (clients) - used to preserve computing resources and minimise Internet bandwidth use. Clients make requests to a proxy server, for example download file or HTML page. The server will perform this task, return the results and store the results in its cached memory. Any subsequent requests for previously downloaded information, can be served from the proxy cache, rather than being downloaded again. The cache will usually have an expiry algorithm which regularly flushes documents according to their age, size, and access history.
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Router
A router is a device (or software) that determines the next network point to which a packet of data should be forwarded toward its destination. The router is connected to at least two networks and decides which way to send each information packet based on its state of the networks it is connected to.
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Search Engine
A program that allows people to search for specific data on the World Wide Web. A search engine is an important tool. It performs a searching function to find web sites or e-mail addresses or articles posted to newsgroups. Most of the information provided by search engines is categorised so the search can be refined similar to subject directories. A search engines contains large databases of millions of records, which include the URL of a particular web page along with information relating to the content of the web page known as a meta tag, which is anchored within the HTML code.
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Server
A server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs in the same or other computers. The computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a server.
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Server Side Includes (SSI)
Commands that can be included in web pages that are processed by the web server when a user requests a file. Server Side Includes are often used to insert common content into several different web pages, or to include the results of a CGI program on a page.
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Site
A particular "spot" on the Internet or World Wide Web. Sometimes a single computer, but may be a network of computers. Examples include: Gopher site, WWW site, FTP site.
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SLIP/PPP
Two protocols for allowing a computer to connect to the Internet through a dial-up connection, using a modem.
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SMTP
(Simple Mail Transport Protocol) -- The main protocol used to send email on the Internet. SMTP is often used in conjunction with POP.
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